University of the West of Scotland

Publications

Mark Stansfield's Recent Publications

Journal Papers

Hainey, T., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., and Boyle, E.A. (2011). "The Differences in Motivations of Online Game Players and Offline Game Players: A Combined Analysis of Three Studies at Higher Education Level", Computers and Education, Vol. 57, Issue 4, pp. 2197-2211.

Hainey, T., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., and Boyle, E.A. (2011). "Evaluation of a Games to Teach Requirements Collection and Analysis in Software Engineering at Tertiary Education Level", Computers and Education, Vol. 56, Issue 1, pp 21-35.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M. and Hainey, T. (2011). "An Alternate Reality Game for Language Learning: ARGuing for Multilingual Motivation", Computers and Education, Volume 57, Issue 1, August 2011, pp 1389-141.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2011). "Organisational blogging: the problem of engagement", International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, Vol 2, Issue 4.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2010). "Organisational blogs: benefits and challenges of implementation", The Learning Organization, Vol 17, Issue 6, pp 515-528.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2009). "The use of blogs as organisational learning tools within project-based environments", International Journal of Collaborative Enterprise, Special Issue on “Organizational Learning”, Vol 1, No 2, pp 131-146.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2009). "The socialisation of organisational learning through learning technology", International Journal of Internet & Enterprise Management (IJIEM), Vol. 6, No. 2, pp.164–176. DOI: 10.1504/IJIEM.2009.023928.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2009). "How Can Organisations Learn: An Information Systems Development Perspective", Learning Inquiry , Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 25-46. DOI: 10.1007/s11519-009-0038-8.

Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Cartelli, A., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2009) "Towards the Development of a Model for Best Practice in Virtual Campuses", International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, Special Issue: "Towards Virtual Universities", ISSN (Online): 1741-5225, ISSN (Print): 1470-9503. Full Paper

Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Cartelli, A., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2009) "The Identification of Key Issues in the Development of Sustainable E-Learning and Virtual Campus Initiatives", Electronic Journal of E-Learning, Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2009. pp155-164. ISSN: 1479-4403. Full Paper.

Cartelli, A., Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2008) "Towards the Development of a New Model for Best Practice and Knowledge Construction in Virtual Campuses", Journal of IT Education, Vol. 7, ISSN: online 1539-3585; print 1547-9714; CD-ROM 1547-9706. pp. 121-134. Full Paper.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and Hainey, T. (2007). "An Application of Games-based Learning within Software Engineering", British Journal of Educational Technology . [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Boyle, E.A., Stansfield, M.H., and Hainey, T. (2007) "The Potential of Online Games as a Collaborative Learning Environment", Journal of Advanced Technology for Learning (accepted). [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2006) "From eLearning to Games-based eLearning", International Journal of Information Technology Management. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2006) "Using Games-based eLearning Technologies in Overcoming Difficulties in Teaching Information Systems", Journal of IT Education, Volume 5, pp. 459-476. [Full Paper]

Connolly, T.M., MacArthur, E., Stansfield, M.H. and McLellan, E. (2006) "A Quasi-Experimental Study of Three Online Learning Courses in Computing", Journal of Computers and Education (in print). [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H and McLellan, E. (2005) "Using an Online Games-Based Learning Approach to Teach Database Design Concepts, Electronic Journal of e-Learning. [Full Paper]

Stansfield, M.H., McLellan, E. and Connolly, T.M. (2004) " Enhancing Student Performance in Online Learning and Traditional Face-to-Face Class Delivery", Journal of IT Education. Vol. 3. ISSN: 1539-3585. Published by the Informing Science Institute Santa Rosa, California USA. pp173-188. [Full Paper]

Stansfield, M.H. and Grant, K. (2003) "An Investigation into the Use of Electronic Commerce among Small to Medium Sized Enterprises", Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 4, No. 1. February 2003, ISSN: 1526-6133. pp15-33. (Online) http://www.csulb.edu/web/journals/jecr/p_i.htm

Stansfield, M.H. (2001) "Problems and Issues in Using Computer-Based Support Tools to Enhance "Soft" Systems Approaches", Australian Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, September 2001. pp102-110. ISSN: 1039-7841.

West, D. and Stansfield, M.H. (2001) "Structuring Action and Reflection in IS Action Research Studies Using Checkland"s FMA Model", The International Journal of Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol. 14, No.3, June 2001. pp251-281. ISSN: 1094-429X.

Grant, K., Stansfield, M.H. and FitzGerald, S. (2001) "The Information Challenges Approach to Teaching Information Management", Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 25, No. 2. June 2001. pp359-368. ISSN: 1469-9486.

Edited Books

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and Boyle, E. (Editors) (2009) "Games-based Learning Advancement for Multisensory Human Computer Interfaces: Techniques and Effective Practices". IGI Global Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 978-1-60566-360-9.

Stansfield, M.H. and Connolly, T.M. (Editors) (2009) "Institutional Transformation through Best Practices in Virtual Campus Development: Advancing E-Learning Policies Organizations." IGI Global Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 978-1-60566-358-6.

Edited Chapters in Books

Hainey, T., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M., and Boyle, E.A. (2011). "The Use of Computer Games in Education: A Review of the Literature". In Handbook of Research on Improving Learning and Motivation through Educational Games: Multidiciplinary Approaches (Ed: Felicia, P.). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 1609604954.

Hainey, T., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M., and Boyle, E.A. (2011). "ARGuing for multilingual motivation in Web 2.0: an evaluation of a large-scale European pilot". In Handbook of Research on Improving Learning and Motivation through Educational Games: Multidiciplinary Approaches (Ed: Felicia, P.). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 1609604954.

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2011). "From eLearning to Games-based eLearning". In Gaming and Simulations: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. Information Resources Management Association, USA, pp. 1763-1773, ISBN: 1609601955.

Stansfield, M., Connolly, T. Hainey, T. and Baxter, G. (2011). "Games-Based Learning and Web 2.0 Technologies in Education: Motivating the "iLearner" Generation". In Research on e-Learning and ICT in Education (Ed: A Jimoyiannis). Springer Science+ Business Media. pp. 225-237, ISBN 978-1-4614-1082-9.

Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M. and Fuller, T. (2009). "IT/IS Ethics, Professionalism & Security". In Strategic Information Systems Management: Priorities, Procedures & Policy (Eds: Kevin Grant, Ray Hackney and David Edgar). Thomson Publishing: London. ISBN: 978-1-4080-0793-8.

Stansfield, M.H. and Connolly, T.M. (2009). "An Exploration into Key Issues Relating to the Adoption of Good Practices in E-Learning and Virtual Campuses". In Transforming Higher Education through Technology Enhanced Learning (Eds: Terry Mayes, Derek Morrison, Harvey Mellar, Peter Bullen and Martin Oliver). Higher Education Academy. ISBN: 978-1-907207-11-2.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and Hainey, T. (2009) "Towards the Development of a Games-based Learning Evaluation Framework". Games-based Learning Advancement for Multisensory Human Computer Interfaces: Techniques and Effective Practices (Eds: Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and Boyle, E.). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 978-1-60566-360-9.

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2009) "The Development of a Framework for Identifying and Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses". Institutional Transformation through Best Practices in Virtual Campus Development: Advancing E-Learning Policies (Eds: Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H.). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 978-1-60566-358-6.

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2008) "Games-based eLearning" in Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (Ed: A. Cartelli and M. Palma), IGI Global, ISBN: 1599048450, ISBN (e-book): 978-1599048451, pp. 268-295.

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2007) "From eLearning to Online Games-based eLearning: Implication and Challenges for Higher Education and Training" in Social Implications and Challenges of E-Business (Ed: F. Li). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: 1599041057, pp. 42-56. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (in print) "A Framework for exploring success factors in online education and lifelong learning within Higher Education" in Online Education for Lifelong Learning (Ed: Y. Inoue). Idea-Group Publishing: Hershey. ISBN: Pending. (in print).

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2007) "Developing Constructivist Learning Environments to Enhance Learning"in Principles of Effective Online Teaching: A Handbook for Experienced Teachers Developing eLearning (Ed: N. Buzzetto-More), ISBN: 193288601X, pp. 19-38. [Abstract]

Conference Papers

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Gould, C., Tsvetkova, N., Kusheva, R., Stoimenova, B., Penkova, R., Legurska, M. and Dimitrova, N. (2011). "Understanding the pedagogy Web 2.0 Supports: The presentation of a Web 2.0 pegagogical model", Proceedings of International Conference on European Transnational Education (ICEUTE), 20-21 October 2011, Salamanca, Spain.

Baxter, G.J., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Tsvetkova, N., Kusheva, R., Stoimenova, B., Penkova, R., Legurska, M. and Dimitrova, N. (2011). "Introducing Web 2.0 in Education: A Structured Approach Adopting a Web 2.0 Implementation Framework", Proceedings of International Conference on European Transnational Education (ICEUTE), 20-21 October 2011, Salamanca, Spain.

Connolly, T.M., Hainey, T., Baxter, G.J., Stansfield, M.H., Carole, C., Can, C., Bedir, H., Inozu, J., Tsvetkova, N., Kusheva, R., Stoimenova, B., Penkova, R., Legurska M. and Dimitrova, N. (2011). "Teachers' Views on Web 2.0 in Education: An evaluation of a large-scale European pilot", Proceedings of International Conference on European Transnational Education (ICEUTE), 20-21 October 2011, Salamanca, Spain.

Hainey, T., Connolly, T.M., Boyle, E. and Stansfield, M.H. (2011). "Motivations for Playing Computer Games in Relation to Gender: A Comparative Analysis of Three Studies at Higher Education", 5th European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 20-21 October 2011, Athens, Greece.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Hainey, T., Cousins, I., Josephson, J., O'Donovan, A., Rodriguez Ortiz, C., Tsvetkova, N., Stoimenova, B., and Tsvetanova, S. (2009) "ARGuing for multilingual motivation in Web 2.0: a games-based learning platform for language learning", 3rd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 12-13 October 2009, Graz, Austria.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Hainey, T., Cousins, I., Josephson, J., O'Donovan, A., Rodriguez Ortiz, C., Tsvetkova, N., Stoimenova, B., and Tsvetanova, S. (2009) "ARGuing for multilingual motivation in Web 2.0: an evaluation of a large-scale European pilot", 3rd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 12-13 October 2009, Graz, Austria.

Tsvetanova, S., Stoimenova, B., Tsvetkova, N., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Hainey, T., Cousins, I., Josephson, J., O'Donovan, A., Rodriguez Ortiz, C. (2009) "ARGuing For Multilingual Motivation In Web 2.0: a tool for facilitating plurilingualism", 3rd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 12-13 October 2009, Graz, Austria.

Tsvetanova, S., Stoimenova, B., Tsvetkova, N., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Hainey, T., Cousins, I., Josephson, J., O'Donovan, A., Rodriguez Ortiz, C. (2009) "ARGuing For Multilingual Motivation In Web 2.0: the teacher training perspective", 3rd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 12-13 October 2009, Graz, Austria.

O'Donovan, A., Tsvetkova, N., Stoimenova, B., Tsvetanova, S., Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Hainey, T., Cousins, I., Josephson, J., O'Donovan, A., Rodriguez Ortiz, C. (2009) "The Truth about Alternate Reality games: ARGs in Educational Method, ARGs as Educational Method", 3rd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 12-13 October 2009, Graz, Austria.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Josephson, J., Lazaro, N., Rubio, G., Rodriguez Ortiz, C., Tsvetkova, N., Tsvetanova, S. (2008) "Arguing For Multilingual Motivation In Web 2.0: Using Alternate Reality Games To Support Language Learning", 2nd European Conference on Games-based Learning (ECGBL), 16-17 October 2008, Barcelona, Spain.

Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Cartelli, A., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2008) "The Development of a Models for Identifying and Promoting Best Practice in E-Learning and Virtual Campuses", 7th European Conference on E-Learning, 6-7 November 2008, Agia Napa, Cyprus.

Jimoyiannis, A., Stansfield, M., Connolly, T., Cartelli, A., Magalhaes, H., Maillet, K., Gravani, M. and Koulaidis, V. (2008) "Virtual Campuses: A New Paradigm in E-Learning Widening Learning Participation", 6th Hellenic Conference with International Participation Information and Communication Technologies in Education, 25-28 September 2008, Limassol, Cyprus.

Stansfield, M.H., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H., Connolly, T.M., Cartelli, A., and Maillet, K. (2008) "Promoting and Implementing Best Practice in Virtual Campuses and E-Learning", ALT-C, Leeds, UK, 11 September 2008. Post Conference Workshop Event.

Cartelli, A., Maillet, K., Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Toland, J. (2008) "Identifying and Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses and E-Learning", ED-MEDIA 2008 Conference - World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, 30 June-4 July 2008, Vienna, Austria, pp. 897-902. Winner of Outstanding Paper Award

Cartelli, A., Maillet, K., Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Toland, J. (2008) "Towards a Framework for Identifying and Evaluating Best Practice in E-Learning and Virtual Campuses", ED-MEDIA 2008 Conference - World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Wednesday 2 July 2008, Vienna, Austria. Poster Presentation. Winner of Best Poster Award

Cartelli, A., Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2008) "Towards the Development of a New Model for Best Practice and Knowledge Construction in Virtual Campuses", Informing Science and IT Education Conference (InSITE 2008), 22-25 June 2008, Varna, Bulgaria.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Josephson, J., Lazaro, N., Rubio, G., Rodriguez Ortiz, C., Tsvetkova, N., Tsvetanova, S. (2008) "Using Alternate Reality Games To Support Language Learning", 7th IASTED International Conference on Web-Based Education, 17 - 19 March 2008, Innsbruck, Austria.

Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M., Cartelli, A., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2007) "A Framework for Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses: Initial Lessons from the PBP-VC Project", eLene-EE 2007 Conference: Economics of E-Learning, 13-14 December 2007, Paris, France.

Cartelli, A., Stansfield, M.H., Connolly, T.M, Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2007) "The Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses (PBP-VC) Project", Towards New Strategies for Higher Education, Challenging Boundaries: The Role of ICT in the Creation of a European Higher Education Arena, 16 November 2007, Urbino, Italy. Presentation

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., Cartelli, A., Jimoyiannis, A., Magalhaes, H. and Maillet, K. (2007) "Towards the Development of a Framework for Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses", International Courses and Services Online Virtual Erasmus and a New Generation of Open Educational Resources for a European and Global Outreach, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities Conference (EADTU 2007), 8-10 November 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. Full Paper.

Connolly, T.M., Taylor, T., Stansfield, M.H., and Posada-Gil, O. (2007) "The Development of an Online Course in Analytical Chemistry", International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL), 27-28 June 2007, New York, USA.

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2006) "Enhancing eLearning: Using Computer Games to Teach Requirements Collection and Analysis", Second Symposium of the WG HCI & UE of the Austrian Computer Society, 23 November 2006, Vienna, Austria. [Submitted]

Connolly, T.M., Taylor, T., Stansfield, M.H., and Posada-Gil, O. (2006) "Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) in eLearning Production in Analytical Chemical", Innovation for Profit " A Route for Competitive Success Conference , 30 November, Paisley, Scotland. [Submitted]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M., Boyle, E., and Hainey, T. (2006) "The Case for More Empirical Evidence for Games-based LEarning in Tertiary Education", Computer Assisted Learning Conference: Development, Distruption and Debate (CAL) 2007, 26-28 March 2007, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. [Submitted]

Gerrard, C., Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M. (2006) "The Role of Staff Development to Enhance the Integration of e-Learning within the HE Curriculum", European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL) 2006, 11-13 September 2006, University of Winchester, UK. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Taylor, T., Stansfield, M.H., and Posada-Gil, O. (2006) "Attitudes to eLearning in the Chemical Industry", 8th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education (ECRICE), 31 August - 1 September 2006, Budapest, Hungary. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Boyle, E., Stansfield, M.H. and Hainey, T. (2006) "Can Computer Games Help Next Generation Learners" A Survey of Students' Reasons for Playing Computer Games", 13th International Conference of the Association of Learning and Teaching ALT-C 2006: the next generation, 5-7 September 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2006) "A Framework for Exploring Success-Factors in IS-Related eLearning Masters Programmes", United Kingdom Academy for Information Systems UKAIS 2006: Where Theory Meets Practice, 9-11 April 2006, University of Gloucestershire, England. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M. and Stansfield, M.H. (2006) "Using Interactive Technologies in Teaching an Online Information Systems Course", Informing Science + IT Education (Insite), 25-28 June 2006,Salford, Greater Manchester, England. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and MacArthur, E. (2005) "The Effectiveness of Online Learning for Three Computing-Related Masters Courses: Results From a Three Year Quasi-Experimental Study", ALT-C 2005: Exploring the Frontiers of E-Learning - Borders, Outposts and Migration. Association for Learning Technology Conference, Manchester, UK. 6-8 September 2005. Abstract .

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H., MacArthur, E. and McLellen, E. (2005) "A Three-Year Study Into the Effectiveness of Online Learning for Three IS-Related Masters Courses" , 2nd International Conference on Information Technology and Quality, Island of Spetses, Greece, 4-5 June 2005. Abstract.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H and McLellan, E. (2005) "Developing a Collaborative Computer Games-Based Learning Environment to Teach Database Analysis and Design.", (abstract) International Conference on Computers and Learning, Bristol, UK, April 2005.

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H and McLellan, E. (2005) "An Online Games-Based Collaborative Learning Environment to Teach Database Analysis and Design.", 4th IASTED International Conference on Web-Based Education, Grindelwald, Switzerland, February 2005. [Abstract]

Falconer, E., Usoro, A., Stansfield, M.H. and Lees, B (2005) "A Prototype Intelligent Agent Based DSS for Quadratic Portfolio Optimization Calculations with Case Based Reasoning", International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technologies & Internet Commerce (IAWTIC 2005), IEEE Computational Intelligence Society, Volume I (Ed: M. Mohammadian, Vienna Austria. IEEE: Los Alamitos, Califormia. pp1038-1043. ISBN: 0-7695-2504-0.

Grant, K., Stansfield, M.H. and Edgar, D. (2004) "Reflections on Information Management Research: Reawakening the Research Goliath", Reflecting on the Past, Making Sense of Today, Predicting The Future in Information Systems, UKAIS 2004 Conference, Glasgow Caledonian University, 5-7 May 2004, Glasgow, UK. ISBN: 1-903661-56-0 (CD-ROM).

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H, McLellan, E., Ramsay J. and Sutherland J. (2004) "Applying Computer Games Concepts to Teaching Database Analysis and Design.", International Conference on Computer Games, AI, Design and Education, Reading, UK, November 2004. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and McLellan, E. (2004) "Towards a Framework for Exploring Success Factors in Online Learning.", European Distance and e-Learning Network Annual Conference (EDEN), Budapest, Hungary, June 2004. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and McLellan, E. (2004) "Teaching Online", 15th International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE), Atlanta, March Georgia, 2004. [Abstract]

Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M.H. and McLellan, E. (2003) "Online Learning: Better Results, Better Learning", 9th Annual Conference on Asynchronous Learning Networks, Orlando, Florida, November 2003.

Connolly, T.M, Stansfield, M.H. and McLellan, E. (2003) "Issues Affecting the Successful Development and Delivery of Online IT-Related Masters Programmes", E-Learn 2003: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education, Phoenix Arizona, November 2003. [Abstract]

Stansfield, M.H. and Grant, K. (2003) "Barriers to the Take-up of Electronic Commerce among Small-Medium Sized Enterprises", InSITE 2003 Informing Science and IT Education Conference, Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Pori, Finland, 24-27 June, ISSN: 1535-0703, Editors: Eli Cohen and Elizabeth Boyd, The Informing Science Institute, Santa Rosa, CA, USA. http://ecommerce.lebow.drexel.edu/eli/2003Proceedings/docs\096Stans.pdf

Usoro, A., Stansfield, M.H. and Feng, J.K. (2001) "The Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Strategic Planning: An Exploratory Study", Business Information Technology Management: Enabling Cultural Awareness, Proceedings of BIT World 2001. American University in Cairo, Egypt. p118. ISBN: 0-905304-36-5.